Tal king to Children About Coronavirus (COVID19)
Issuing time:2020-03-22 15:45Source:American Academy Of Child&Adolescent Psychiatry
家长和教师都面临着与儿童讨论冠状病毒暴发演变的挑战。虽然这些可能是困难的对话，但它们也很重要。与孩子谈论这 类突发公共卫生事件没有“正确”或“错误”的方式。然而，这里有一些你可能会觉得有用的建议： Parents and teachers are faced with the challenge of discussing the evolving coronavirus outbreak with young children. Although these may be difficult conversations, they are also important. There are no “right” or “wrong” ways to talk with children about such public health emergencies. However, here are some suggestions you may find helpful:
Create an open and supportive environment where children know they can ask questions. At the same time, it’s best not to force children to talk about things unless and until they’re ready.
2. 诚实地回答问题。如果你在“瞎编”，孩子们通常会知道，或最终发现。这可能会影响他们对你的信任，或者你未 来的保证。
Answer questions honestly. Children will usually know, or eventually find out, if you’re “making things up”. It may affect their ability to trust you or your reassurances in the future.
Use words and concepts children can understand. Gear your explanations to the child’s age, language, and developmental level.
Help children find accurate and up to date information. Print out Fact Sheets from the CDC or WHO.
Be prepared to repeat information and explanations several times. Some information may be hard to accept or understand. Asking the same question over and over may also be a way for a child to ask for reassurance.
Acknowledge and validate the child’s thoughts, feelings, and reactions. Let them know that you think their questions and concerns are important and appropriate.
7. 记住,孩子们倾向于把情况个人化。例如，他们可能担心自己和直系亲属的安全。他们也可能会担心旅行或住得很 远的朋友或亲戚。
Remember that children tend to personalize situations. For example, they may worry about their own safety and the safety of immediate family members. They may also worry about friends or relatives who travel or who live far away.
8. 让他们放心，但不要做出不切实际的承诺。可以让孩子们知道他们在家里或学校是安全的。但你不能保证你所在的 州或社区不会出现冠状病毒病例。
Be reassuring, but don’t make unrealistic promises. It’s fine to let children know that they are safe in their house or in their school. But you can’t promise that there will be no cases of coronavirus in your state or community.
如何与孩子谈论新型冠状病毒 Tal king to Children About Coronavirus (COVID19)
9. 让孩子们知道有很多人在帮助受冠状病毒爆发影响的人们。这是一个很好的机会，让孩子们知道，当可怕或糟糕的 事情发生时，有人可以帮助他们。 Let children know that there are lots of people helping the people affected by the coronavirus outbreak. It’s a good opportunity to show children that when something scary or bad happens, there are people to help.
10.孩子们通过观察父母和老师来学习。他们会对你如何应对冠状病毒爆发的新闻很感兴趣。他们也会从你和其他成年 人的对话中学习。 Children learn from watching their parents and teachers. They will be very interested in how you respond to news about the coronavirus outbreak. They also learn from listening to your conversations with other adults.
Don’t let children watch too much television with frightening images. The repetition of such scenes can be disturbing and confusing.
Children who have experienced serious illness or losses in the past are particularly vulnerable to prolonged or intense reactions to graphic news reports or images of illness or death. These children may need extra support and attention.
13.儿童如果对冠状病毒爆发有疑问或担忧，应由受过训练和合格的精神卫生专业人员进行评估。其他孩子可能需要额 外帮助的迹象包括：持续的睡眠障碍、侵入性的想法或担忧、对疾病或死亡的反复恐惧、不愿离开父母或上学。如 果这种行为持续存在，请您的孩子的儿科医生、家庭医生或学校辅导员帮助安排适当的转诊。
Children who are preoccupied with questions or concerns about the coronavirus outbreak should be evaluated by a trained and qualified mental health professional. Other signs that a child may need additional help include: ongoing sleep disturbances, intrusive thoughts or worries, recurring fears about illness or death, reluctance to leave parents or go to school. If such behaviors persist, ask your child’s pediatrician, family physician or school counselor to help arrange an appropriate referral.
Although parents and teachers may follow the news and the daily updates with interest and attention, most children just want to be children. They may not want to think about what’s happening across the country or elsewhere in the world. They’d rather play ball, go sledding, climb trees or ride bikes.
突发公共卫生事件不容易被任何人理解或接受。可以理解的是，许多小孩子感到害怕和困惑。作为父母、老师和有爱心的成年人，我们 可以通过真诚、一致和支持的方式来倾听和回应，从而提供最好的帮助。幸运的是，大多数孩子，甚至那些遭受损失或疾病的孩子，都 有很强的心理弹性和复原力。然而，通过创造一个开放的环境，他们可以自由地问问题，我们可以帮助他们应对压力事件和经历，并减 少持续情绪困难的风险。
Public health emergencies are not easy for anyone to comprehend or accept. Understandably, many young children feel frightened and confused. As parents, teachers, and caring adults, we can best help by listening and responding in an honest, consistent, and supportive manner. Fortunately, most children, even those exposed to loss or illness, are quite resilient. However, by creating an open environment where they feel free to ask questions, we can help them cope with stressful events and experiences and reduce the risk of lasting emotional difficulties.
David Fassler 医 学 博士是 AACAP 消 费 者 问题委员会的成员。法斯勒博士是佛蒙特州伯灵顿的一名儿童和青少年精神病学家。他也是佛蒙 特大学拉纳医学院的精神病学临床教授。
David Fassler, MD, is a member of the Consumer Issues Committee at AACAP. Dr. Fassler is a child and adolescent psychiatrist practicing in Burlington, Vermont. He is also a Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Vermont Larner College of Medicine.