Supporting Older Children & Adolescents Affected by and Isolated because of the Coronavirus COVID-19
Issuing time:2020-03-22 14:40Author:Howard Osofsky&Joy OsofskySource:The China American Psychoanalytic Alliance
By Howard Osofsky, M.D., Ph.D. & Joy Osofsky, Ph.D. LA State University Health Sciences Center Translation & editorial assistance: Maranda Sze, Ph. D., Elise Snyder, M.D., Dihao Zhou, Yale U. Distributed by the China American Psychoanalytic Alliance
霍华德·奥索夫斯基，医学博士，博士&乔伊·奥索夫斯基，洛杉矶州立大学健康科学中心博士 翻译和编辑助理: Maranda Sze，博士，Elise Snyder，硕士，周迪豪，耶鲁大学。 由中美精神分析联盟发行
The coronavirus has caused a major epidemic. Luckily, relatively few children have been directly affected and those cases have tended to be mild. Of all reported cases, a little over one percent have occurred in youths aged 10-19 years and a little under one percent in children aged 9 years or younger. Here are some ways youths may be affected & ways you can help.
Common Behaviors of Adolescents Exposed to Trauma
1. 当青少年暴露于创伤性事件时When adolescents are exposed to traumatic events
A. 他们依赖成年人They depend on Adults
B. 他们需要保护 They need protection
C. 他们依赖支持They depend on support
2. 他们需要父母和其他成年人在情感上倾听他们，倾听他们的担忧They need their parents and other adults to be emotionally available to listen to them and to hear their concerns
3. 家长、老师和其他人应该向青少年提供准确、真实的信息Parents, teachers and others should provide accurate, truthful information to adolescents
4. 常见的行为 Common behaviors
B. 回避 Withdrawal
C. 睡眠障碍Difficulty sleeping
D. 失调-退行Dysregulation - regression
5. 所有年龄的青少年都经历着压力，包括父母和其他照顾者所经历的压力。 Youths of all ages experience stress, including the stress experienced by parents and other caregivers.
Stress may affect their ability to regulate their behaviors and emotions.
7. 成年人可以通过吸收一些发生在他们周围的压力来缓冲儿童的压力。 Adults can buffer children by absorbing some of the stress that is happening around them.
Interventions for Impacted & Isolated Adolescents
1. 保持生活习惯对儿童和青少年非常重要。灾难、强制隔离、学校关闭都会打乱正常的生活。建立 新的生活习惯很重要：做虚拟课堂的课业，找时间玩和锻炼，和远方的朋友保持联系。日常生活可以包括 固定的用餐时间，就寝时间，找个时间谈心，做些有趣的事情。 Routines are very important for children and adolescents. Disasters, forced isolation, school closures will disrupt usual routines. Creating new routines is important: doing virtual schoolwork, finding time to play and exercise, keeping in touch with friends remotely. Routines can include keeping set mealtimes, bedtimes, and finding a time to talk and do enjoyable things.
2. 在隔离期间，来自父母或看护者的支持是非常重要的，即使他们担心。然而，父母也需要实践自 我照顾，这样他们就会在身体和情感上都在场，帮助应对压力的增加。记住要花时间倾听各个年龄段的孩 子，准确地回答他们的问题。 Support from parents or caregivers, even when they are worried, is very important during the isolation. However, parents also need to practice self-care so that they will be both physically and emotionally present to help with increases in stress. Remember to make time to listen to children of all ages and accurately respond to their questions.
3. 解释事情为什么不同，给他们时间来谈论和倾听他们的担忧——他们需要理解流行病将会结束， 为什么他们不能去学校，拜访他们的朋友，并格外小心地洗手，避免接触病毒。 Explain why things are different, give youth time to talk and listen to their worries – they need to understand that the epidemic will end and why they can’t go to school, visit their friends, and be extra careful washing hands, and avoiding exposure to the virus.
4. 尽你所能以适合孩子年龄的方式来支持他们。所有的孩子都可以参与帮助别人完成一些任务，而 大一点的孩子可以帮助小一点的孩子。 Do your best to support children in a way that is appropriate for their age. All children can have important roles helping others with necessary tasks and older children can help younger children.