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Issuing time:2020-03-22 14:32Author:Howard Osofsky, m.d., Ph.D. & Joy Osofsky, Ph.D.Source:Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center



作者:Howard Osofsky, m.d., Ph.D. & Joy Osofsky, Ph.D.



翻译和编辑助理: Maranda Sze,博士,Elise Snyder,硕士,周迪豪,耶鲁大学 由中美精神分析协会发行

By Howard Osofsky, M.D., Ph.D. & Joy Osofsky, Ph.D.   

Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

New Orleans, LA, USA

Translation & editorial assistance: Maranda Sze, Ph. D., Elise Snyder, M.D., Dihao

Zhou, Yale University   

Distributed by the China American PsychoanalytcAlliance

新型冠状病毒(Covid-19)是一种主要的流行病。幸运的是很少有小孩子生病。大多数患病 的儿童病情轻微。然而,年幼的儿童被隔离、他们的父母和其他成年人的焦虑,这些对他 们的影响很大。成年人可能认为孩子不会注意到所有的变化和压力,但他们对正在发生的 事情非常敏感。以下是孩子们应对压力的一些方式,以及你可以做的一些事情来帮助他 们。

The coronavirus (Covid-19)is a major epidemic. Luckily few young children have fallen ill. Most of the sick children have had mild cases. However, young children are highly affected by the quarantine and the anxiety of their parents and other adults. Adults may think that children will not notice all the changes and the stress, but they are very sensitive to what is going on. Here are some of the ways children react to the stress and some of the things you can do to help them.

幼儿对创伤的常见反应 Common Ways Young Children React To Trauma

频繁的哭泣; 静不下来; 入睡困难、容易醒; 噩梦; 紧紧粘着照顾者; 害怕孤独; 重复的游戏 (他们可能会一遍又一遍地重复他们所听到的; 他们可能会试图特别照顾他们的娃娃或填充 动物,并隐藏或覆盖他们)。有些孩子可能变得非常好斗和愤怒。其他孩子可能不愿意跟 人接触。有些人可能表现得像年幼的孩子,忘记如何上厕所,想要喝瓶装水,不想用玻璃 杯喝水,想要吃婴儿食品或拒绝吃东西,说出的话像一个比自己实际年龄小得多的孩子。

Frequent   crying; difficulty staying still; problems falling asleep and staying asleep; nightmares; clinging to their caregivers; fears of being alone; repetitive play (they may repeat   over and over again what they have heard; they may try to take special care of their dolls or stuffed animals and hide or cover them). Some children may become very aggressive and angry. Others may withdraw from contact. Some may act like younger children, lose their toilet training, want a

bottle rather than drinking from a glass, want to eat baby food or refuse to eat, talk like a much younger child.

小孩子对他们的监护人所经历的压力非常敏感。这会影响他们以正常方式行事的能力,也 会影响他们的情绪。通常,他们不能谈论他们的恐惧和痛苦。照顾者可以保护他们免受一 些成年人感受到的压力,但是照顾者必须意识到孩子们感到不安。 Young children are very sensitive to the stress experienced by their caretakers. It affects their ability to act in their usual ways and affects their emotions. Most often, they cannot talk about their fears and distress. Caretakers can protect them from some of the stress the adults feel, but caretakers must be aware that the children are upset.


1. 生活习惯对小孩子来说很重要。灾难、被迫的隔离孤立和其他创伤性的情况常常打破 他们的常规。建立新的生活习惯或重新建立日常生活习惯可以帮助孩子们感到安全。 保持有规律的用餐时间和就寝时间,设定一个每天一起玩游戏的时间,或者给他们读 书,或者一起唱歌,这些都有帮助。 Routines are very important for young children. Disasters, forced isolation, and other traumatic situations often break their usual routines. Creating new routines or reestablishing usual routines can help children feel safe. Keeping regular mealtimes and bedtimes, setting a daily time to play games together, or read to them, or sing songs together all help.   

2. 在压力时期和紧急的灾难结束后,来自父母或看护者的支持是非常重要的。父母可能 在身体上在场,但在情感上却不在场,因为他们自己也有很大的压力。花点时间让孩 子安心,和他们在一起是很重要的。 Support from parents or caregivers is very important during periods of stress and during the time after the acute disaster is over. Parents may be physically present but not available emotionally because they are so stressed themselves. It is important to make time to reassure young children and spend time with them.

3.   解释事情为什么不同。年幼的孩子可能不明白为什么事情会发生变化(比如为什么他 们不能出去或者不能和其他孩子一起玩),但是和他们交谈可以帮助他们感觉得到你 的支持。以适合孩子年龄的方式帮助他们。保持简单的解释。 Explain why things are different. Young children may not understand why things have changed (like why they cannot go outside or play with other children) but talking with them will help them feel to feel supported by you. Help the children in a way that is appropriate for their age. Keep explanations simple.   

4.   照顾好自己。这是非常重要的。即使年幼的孩子没有直接暴露在创伤中,他们也能识 别出家里较大的孩子和成年人的压力和担忧。

Take care of yourself. This is very important. Even if young children are not directly exposed to the trauma, they can recognize stress and worry in older children and adults in the house.

5. 如果年幼的孩子被送到另一个城市与家人呆在一起,在白天和就寝时间尽可能多地使 用电子手段与他们交谈。如果他们在家,尽量让他们用手机聊天的方式见一见自己的 小伙伴们。 If young children have been sent to stay with family members in another city talk to them using electronic means as often as possible during the day and at bedtime.   If they are at home, try to arrange for them to see other children using a cell phone.

作者:(Joy D. Osofsky, Ph . D.)(Howard J. Osofsky,医学博士,路易斯安那州立大学健康科学中心博士) 作者:Elise Snyder,医学博士,中美精神分析联盟(CAPA)主席 翻译: 周迪迪,耶鲁大学 Authors: (Joy D. Osofsky, Ph,D. and (Howard J. Osofsky, M.D., Ph.D.Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Distributed by: Elise Snyder, M.D. , President China-American Psychoanalytic Alliance (CAPA) Translation: Didi Zhou, Yale University